Fraxinus excelsior – Common Ash (central Europe)
Habit: One of the most powerful European trees; 20-35 (40) m tall, 10-15 (25) m wide, ovoid to round crown, branches vertical to upright, twigs slightly overhanging; fast-growing, 60-80 (even 120) cm the first 5-10 years, later 20-40 cm.
Flowers: Inconspicuous violet-brown as buds, then yellowish green, loose clusters, May.
Fruits: Brown, winged seeds, staying on the tree until the following spring; slightly opening.
Leaves: Shoots late, pinnate, medium green; staying green in autumn into November or falling immediately after the first frosty nights; very rarely golden green or yellow in October, black winter buds.
Roots: Deep with shallow, far-reaching lateral roots; slow-growing, sensitive to soil compaction and lowering ground water.
Demands: Sun to light shade, likes warmth, frost hardy but damage due to late frost sometimes occurs; also for cool, humid areas; tolerant of urban pollution with sufficiently moist soil, wind resistant.
Soil: Moderately dry to fresh, does not tolerate floods, likes nutritious, chalky substrates; also possible on slightly acidic or neutral soil; moderately tolerant of salt.
Hardiness: Zone 4