Cornus sanguinea – Common Dogwood (central Europe)
Habit: Large shrub like a thicket, 1-5 (8) m tall and 2-4 m wide, upright, gradually broad, occasionally a one-stem small tree with asymmetrical crown, oval; slow-growing to moderate.
Bark: Young twigs are blood-red, especially in early spring.
Flowers: After leaves shoots, small, modest, cream-white umbels, end of May/June; pungent scent.
Fruits: Black, pea-size berries from September on; unpalatable.
Leaves: Elliptical, dark green, wine-red to orange-yellow from end of September.
Roots: Intense cordate roots tending to form runners, often 50 per square meter.
Demands: Very robust, frost hardy, and extremely adaptable shrub, good for urban areas, wind resistant.
Soil: Thrives in almost any area, avoid very acidic, poor sandy soil; hardly tolerant of salt.
Hardiness: Zone 4