Betula pubescens (central Europe)
Habit: Medium-size tree, sometimes shrub, 5-15 m tall, 3-5 m wide; initially loosely conical, later with round crown, branches upright, not overhanging, often branching off from one point, varies in appearance.
Flowers: Monoecious, yellow catkins while shooting, end of April to beginning of May.
Bark: Whitish with crossways stripes.
Leaves: Roundish to ovoid, dull green, initially velvety to the touch; deep yellow to yellow-orange-brown in autumn, October.
Roots: Shallow, deeper than with B. pendula, less intense and sensitive.
Demands: Sun, frost hardy, wind resistant.
Soil: Good in cool to cold, moist or damp areas, acidic substrates, prefers humic or sandy soil; avoids chalk; sensitive to salt.
Hardiness: Zone 1