Abies nordmannia – Caucasian Fir
(south-eastern Europe, western Asia)
Habit: A picturesque large tree, 25-30 (40) m tall, 5-8 m wide; symmetrical, broadly conical, branches to the ground, densely packed twigs; initially slow-growing, 20-30 cm a year, later medium-growing, 40-60 cm.
Leaves: Late shoots, fresh green, gradually shiny like varnish, shiny dark green needles, white stripes undreneath, like brushes, densely packed and facing the front.
Roots: Cordate to deep roots, sensitive to soil compaction.
Demands: Sunny to slightly shady, sensitive to heat, but likes warmth, frost hardy; prefers humid areas, needs some wind protection.
Soil: Fresh soil, slightly acidic to alkaline, nutritious loamy soil.
Hardiness: Zone 5a